Fentanils in Europe — 1990–2010

The reference list below provides an overview of important detections of fentanils in Europe between 1990 and 2010 that have been published in the literature. They include information on seizures of illicit labs as well as precursors.


Qualitative studies on the metabolism and the toxicological detection of the fentanyl-derived designer drugs 3-methylfentanyl and isofentanyl in rats using liquid chromatography-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry (LC-MS(n)). Meyer MR, Dinger J, Schwaninger AE, Wissenbach DK, Zapp J, Fritschi G, Maurer HH. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012;402(3):1249-55.

An epidemic of fatal 3-methylfentanyl poisoning in Estonia. Ojanperä I, Gergov M, Liiv M, Riikoja A, Vuori E. Int J Legal Med. 2008;122(5):395-400.

Blood levels of 3-methylfentanyl in 3 fatal poisoning cases. Ojanperä I, Gergov M, Rasanen I, Lunetta P, Toivonen S, Tiainen E, Vuori E. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2006;27(4):328-31.

Seizure of illicitly produced para-fluorofentanyl: quantitative analysis of the content of capsules and tablets. de Boer D, Goemans WP, Ghezavat VR, van Ooijen RD, Maes RA. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2003;31(3):557-62.

A cluster of fentanyl-related deaths among drug addicts in Sweden. Kronstrand R, Druid H, Holmgren P, Rajs J. Forensic Sci Int. 1997;88(3):185-93.

Illicit fentanyl in Europe. Berens AI, Voets AJ, Demedts P. Lancet. 1996;347(9011):1334-5.

First encounter with p-fluorofentanyl in the Netherlands. Poortman-van der Meer AJ, Huizer H. Toxichem Krimtech. 1996;63(1):7–14.

Intermediate and byproducts in the illegal production of fentanyl and fluorofentanyls and syntheses of acetyl homologues. Fritschi G, Klein B. Archiv für Kriminologie. 1995;196(5-6):149–55.

Fatality due to fentanyl-cocaine intoxication resulting in a fall. Ferrara SD, Snenghi R, Tedeschi L. Int J Legal Med. 1994;106(5):271-3.

Expert examination of 3-methylfentanyl. Sorokin VI, et al. Microgram. 1994;XXVII(July):221–6.

Clandestine synthesis of 3-methylfentanyl. Sorokin VI. J Clan Lab Invest Chem Assoc. 1994;4(2):28–9.